CANADA MAP

Alberta A lake surrounded by mountains

One of Canada's four prairie provinces, and the most populous of them, Alberta is the only one to border a single US state. It is divided from British Columbia by the Rocky Mountains, over which run gusts of wind, known as chinooks, that can keep the southern part of the province considerably warmer than its eastern neighbours during the winter.

British Columbia Photograph of a forested coastline, with mountains beyond

One of the western-most of Canada’s provinces, British Columbia is part of the Cascadia region, bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Rocky Mountains to the east. The environment ranges from temperate rain forest in the southern coastal regions to extremely cold in the north.

Manitoba

Manitoba is sparsely populated, especially in the north, which is dominated by arctic tundra and the Canadian Shield, a vast area of igneous rock that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent.

New Brunswick White lighthouse decorated with a red cross photographed in front of a fog bank

One of Canada’s three Maritime provinces, bordering the Atlantic ocean. It is the only constitutionally bi-lingual province (French-English), partly due to the presence of the large Acadian population, most of whom are descended from returnees from the mass expulsion of the Acadian people by the British during the French-Indian war.

Newfoundland & Labrador Scattered houses on a bluff above the ocean

A unique province that consists of both an island (Newfoundland) and a portion of the mainland (Labrador). The area has a deep history, being inhabited by the Beothuk, Inuit, Mi'kmaq and Innu for thousands of years. European content began in 1001 CE, when the area was temporarily settled by Vikings led by Leif Ericson.

Nova Scotia A lighthouse at dusk, shot from below, with rocks in the foreground

Canada’s second-smallest province is almost completely surrounded by water. It’s unique geographical history has also made it a valuable location for fossils, mostly from the Carboniferous, Triassic and Jurassic periods.

Northwest Territories Rust-red houseboats on a blue river

Part of Canada since 1870, the Northwest Territories were subdivided in 1999 to form the territory of Nunavut, gaining the portion that has a slightly warmer climate and taiga forest.

Nunavut Yellow buildings against a frozen ocean

The largest Canadian territory, with a land area equivalent to Western Europe, it is also the newest, formed in 1999, and the least populous, with just over 30,000 permanent citizens. Nunavut also holds the northernmost permanently inhabited settlement in the world in the form of Alert, a military signals station and scientific outpost.

Ontario Old buildings of Parliament Hill reflected in a curve of the Ottawa river during fall

Canada’s most populous province, with nearly 40% of the population, much of it clustered around Lake Ontario and in the city of Toronto, Canada’s largest city. Ontario also holds the nation’s capital of Ottawa.

Prince Edward Island A beach boardwalk through pink grass

The smallest province in both land area and population, Prince Edward Island grows 25% of the nation's potatoes.

Quebec Photograph of Quebec city showing old and modern buildings against a lake, behind a green hill

Quebec is Canada’s second-largest province, and the only one to use French as its sole official language. Independence movements have played a significant role in the history and politics of the province.

Saskatchewan Old weathered grain silos against a blue sky

Saskatchewan is a completely land-locked province located near the geographical center of the country. It's location and lack of any large open bodies of water creates an environment with the greatest range of temperature in Canada, from 40°C in the summer to -40°C in winter.

Yukon A range of rocky snowcapped mountains, partly hidden by cloud

The Yukon largely escaped glaciation during the last Ice Age 10,000 years ago, making it a welcome home for the First Nations of the north. Today ¾ of the population lives in the territory’s only city of Whitehorse; the second-largest habitation has just 2000 people.